Here is what I did not think about long time ago so I am writting here to better memorize.

But first, more imporant is to list Resources:

  • Ruby User’s Guide
  • The Book Of Ruby or shorter version The Little Book Of Ruby

Listing free books:





  • mobile responsive version
  • older


Object and classes

As everything in Ruby is object, so class A;end is also object with type Class. Instead of keyword class we can create a class object with a = and instance with o = class Name;end defines constant Name which holds class object. Class Class extends a class called Module ie A.class.superclass #=> Module. That is why classes has more features than modules (can be instantied, can be extended by other classes). On other side, module can be included (ie all module’s instance methods become avaiable as instance methods in the class) very similar to inheritance. Module can also be extended (ie all module’s instance methods become class methods). Also usefull is that module extends self module M; extend self; def m;end;end so you can use M.m instead of M::m for module methods. Also you can use so subsequent method definitions becomes module functions M.m and they will be also available as instance methods if you include this module.

When you extend class A; extend B;end than A.is_a?(B) == true. When you include class A; include B; end than == true.

self in a definition of a class is class object (which is assigned to constant MyClass) so calling any methods will run in context of that class object (for example instance_methods(false) will print methods that are defined with def). When you define a method it becomes instance method of current object class (even when you define method inside other method). When you reopen the class or module, current class is itself (not the self.class == Class).

You can see all superclasses and mixin modules with A.ancestors. Module class object have new method, but it’s instance (Module instance) does not have (on other hand Class object a = have method). You can see all constants for particular class Object.constants; A.constants

Ruby gems use self.included hook to modify class that is including a module (Rails version of this is ActiveSupport::Concern). So when you include some module in your class, beside instance methods, it will extend and add some class methods as well. For example Linkable

For rails concerns you can see concerns

module Emailable
  included do
    # before_ has_ macros

  # instance methods

  def ClassMethods

Singleton mixin is used when you want to disallow multiple instance of some class, ie we set private_class_method :new, and create it in some other class method def Logger.create;@@loger = new unless @logger;end

true.class # TrueClass there is only one copy of these objects (true, false, nil). This is example of singleton pattern.


  • public methods can be called by anyone, all methods are public by default (except initialize which is private)
  • protected methods can be invoked by anyone (explicit receiver), but only within context of methods of defining class or its subclasses (at calling time self is from same class hierarchy);a.protected_method does not work if the call is outside of instance-method for A, but we can extend the class and than call it class B<A;def call_protected_method_for_a_and_self(a); a.protected_method;protected_method;end;end Protected is like private but caller (self) and receiver object are from same class inheritance.
  • private methods can be called only for that object in defining class or subclasses. Can not be called with explicit receiver: a.private_method does not work, only exception is that you can call private writter method with explicit receiver as long as the receiver is exactly the self self.value=1. So private methods can be called inside any method of descendand class class B<A;def p;private_method_from_A;end;end. Note that top-level methods are private instance method of Object class. Thats why thay can be easily called in bareword style (no explicit receiver).


  • top-level methods (outside of any definition block) are private to all objects
  • instance-method in class class C;def m;self;end;end; self is instance of C
  • instance-method in module module M;def m;end;end; self is object extended by M or instance of class that mixes in M. You can add module to object
    object =
    object.extend M
  • singleton method on specific object def obj.m;self;end or using class <<
    class << obj
      def a_singleton_method

    To access singleton class (which holds all singleton methods) you can use s = obj.singleton_class or this exotic class << syntax

    s = class << obj

    Singleton superclaass is object class s.superclass == obj.class so that is why method lookup search singleton, than class, and ancestor classes.

    You can add singleton class method

    class MyClass
      class << self
        def a_class_method
  • class definition class C;puts self;def self.class_method;self;end;end self in both class definition (singleton on class object) and class method is class object
  • module definition is the same as class definition

When you call some_method it is called on current self self.some_method. Only place where you need self is assignment self.some_identifier = 1.

load "filename.rb" includes that resource every time method is executed (like copy paste code), but require only once and only when needed. ruby -e 'puts $:' will list all load paths. load is usefull to overwrite with new changes of a particular file. Imported constants will stay, but if you want to remove them than you can use load('filename.rb', true) to load into anonymous module and than destroy the module. Load is not used to import the code, usually only to execute the code.

require is more suitable for importing the code (no need .rb). It does not know for current folder, so you need to use ./ dot that explicitly define path require "./f.rb" or $: << "." or require_relative "f"(extension is not needed .rb)

Variables are not objects. They just hold a reference to objects. You can use var.dup to create another object or you can var.freeze to prevent modifications. var.clone is the same as dup but if you clone freezed object, result is also freezed. freeze is only one level, nested objects are not freezed a=["a","b"];a.freeze;a[0][0]='b' or a={a:{b:1}};a.freeze;a[:a][:b]=2

Ruby look up for methods for current object metaclass (eigenclass) than in ancestors classes. Object metaclass contains those singleton methods defined only for that particular object after it was created o={};def o.t;puts 1;end;o.t() - common in GUI - different action for different buttons.

Module can be mixed in in two ways: include M and prepend M. Methods are searched in prepend modules, than in class methods and than in included methods. Last defined (multiple includes do not have effect, ie it will be ignored if already in ancestor lists) module is searched first, the same as with same_name methods in class definition. You can see the order of modules with C.ancestors (prepended, class, included, prepended of superclass, superclass, included of superclass). super calls the same method at upper level. Since modules don’t have instances they generally represent properties of something of some class, and they have adjective names (albeit class tend to be nouns). Modules also can be used for namespacing some classes. When we see M::C we don’t know if C is constant, module or class, but M is a class or module since it has nested items.

Proc are objects that can be called (executed) p = proc { puts 1 };

Variables and scope

Ruby define scope of variable using its name, precisely, first char:

  • $ global $FIRST_NAME available on every scope
  • @ instance @first_name you can list with self.instance_variables and get value with self.instance_variable_get :@first_name (note that we need both : and @) and set value self.instance_variable_set :@first_name, 'me'. You can not use send("@first_name")
  • [a-z]|_ local first_name in every definition block: proc, loop, def end, class end, module end, and is reset on each call. Local variable is very scoped (you can not access in another nested method)

    a = 1
    def p
      puts a
    p # NameError: undefined local variable 'a'

    but you can access from closure definitions such: define_method, proc or lambda or plain old begin end block

  • [A-Z] constant FIRST_NAME (only exception is nil which is constant and self which is global maintaned by interpreter). Constant can be changed (with warning) so you can include one file several times. Object that constant reffers can be changed freely. Constant has global reachability when you know the chain of nested definition C::M::X, absolute path is ::String
  • @@ class variable @@class_variable are shared only between class and all instances of that class. Instance variable for class object are not available in instances of class so can not be shared between instances :( also globals and constants can be changed everywhere so that’s bad too. It can be used in class definition, class methods and instance methods. It is shared with all ancestor classes so better is to store data at class object instance and create attr_accessor for that. class_variable_set

    class Fred
      @@foo = 99
      def foo
    Fred.class_variable_set(:@@foo, 101)     #=> 101                             #=> 101

    In rails 5.2 we can have class_attribute :settings, default: {} so you can use MyClass.settings = 'asd' which will set @@settings = 'asd'.

Every method call create its own local scope. Ruby does some preprocessing compile time where it recognizes all local variables (class @@x instance @x and global $x are recognized by their appearance)

if false
  x = 1
puts x # x is created but not assigned
puts y # Fatal error: y is unknown

In recursion, self is the same but scope is generated each time. But procedure local objects share the same scope with parent. That way we can create something similar to closures to simulate classes.

ruby> def box
    |   contents = nil
    |   get = proc{contents}
    |   set = proc{|n| contents = n}
    |   return get, set
    | end
ruby> reader, writer = box
   [#<Proc:0x40170fc0>, #<Proc:0x40170fac>]
  • attr_accessor :price creates getter and setter method. its better to write all instance variable like that at beggining so we know what defines state (in rails when including ActiveModel::Model you can call model_params and those accessor will be assigned, ie no need to write initialized and manually assign)
  • required and optional arguments for methods def f(a, b=1, *c, d) prefix asterix means that all other arguments will be sponged up an array c. a and d are required, ie you can not call f(1). b has default value
  • matrix []= is private but we can open

    class Matrix
      public :"[]=", :set_element, :set_component
  • (1..10).tap {|x| puts x.inspect}.to_a is used to perfom operation on intermediate results of operations. It returns object x. Usually used with initialization of objects: name).tap do |c| ... end



  • C.superclass # => Object shows superclass
  • ruby -e "class C;end;puts C.ancestors" # [C, Object, Kernel, BasicObject] shows mixed in modules Kernel and superclases
  • C.public_method_defined? 'my_method' to chech if method is defined
  • echo "puts RbConfig::CONFIG['sitedir']" | ruby - | xargs ls -R will show all C extensions (.so files). Use CONFIG["site_ruby"] to list libraries.
  • global variables $0 filename, $$ processID, $: or $LOAD_PATH paths (you can add folder to load path with $:.unshift 'lib' or $: << '.')
  • defined? a is operator that can say if variable is defined. Also works for Module for example defined? My::Module
  • ruby -e 'p Kernel.private_instance_methods.sort' prints all usefull script commands (require, load, raise)
  • puts caller to print callstack
  • p method(:my_method).source_location to find method implementation. To print method source you can use user.method(:name).source.display. For class you need to grab some method for example m=User.method(:initialize);m.source_location
  • if method is overwritten in some class, we can unbind from kernel and rebind to request object link

    method = Kernel.instance_method(:method)
    p method.bind(request).call(:headers).source_location
  • to list all methods that are called from render

    def index
      @users = User.all
      tp = do |x|
        p x
      render 'index'
  • ! a == b is not the same as a != b
  • you should memoize with return @current_isp if defined? @current_isp instead of @current_isp ||= blabla; return @current_isp since it handles false value as well (it will not rerun the check if @current_isp = false) NOTE Do not memoize has_belongs to items since it could change while you are using it…
  • when you iterate over some hashes you can assign variables with name:

    [{name: 'Duke', value: 1},].each do |name:, value:|
      puts name, value
  • big multiline strings can be concatenated from lines similar to HERE_DOC heredoc. It will show \n and will insert spaces because text is indented. There is ~HERE_DOC version to strip spaces for all lines based on first line indent. Minus in <<-HERE_DOC means that it will not strip spaces based on first line, so you need to start from 0 column on each line. Instead of <<~ you can use <<HEREDOC.strip_heredoc, to create single line in Rails you can use <<~HEREDOC.squish If you do not want intepolation #{i} than use with quotes <<~'TEXT'

    MY_TEMPLATE #=> "  <html>\n  </html>\n"
    INDENT #=> "1\n  2\n3\n"
    # also without assignment
    def html_boilerplate
    # you can create single line from it, in rails use HEREDOC.squish
    sql = <<-SQL.gsub("\n", ' ').squish
      SELECT MIN(u.popularity)
      FROM users u
        u.created_at <= #{} AND u.created_at >= #{ - 7.days}
    # you can pass as parameter to method, with arguments also
      Person.where(<<-SQL, my_time).
        users.created_at > ?
      where(managers: { id: Person.find_by!(name: 'Eve') })

    Same HERE_DOC functionality can be achieved with %() or %Q() with interpolation (downcase %q() is without interpolation, same as 'HTML'). Indent is important since lines are joined with \n. First character is not important %Q() is the same as %Q{}

    my_str = %(
    This is multiline
    1 + 1 is #{1+1}

    You can interpolate later in runtime using hash and percentage %{} instead of hash #{}

    'this %{value} is interpolated' % { value: 2 }

    You can also write as single line strings (long line), without new line \n

    string = "this is a \
              long string with a lot of spaces"
    string = "this is also one "\
             "long string but without spaces"
  • %W and %w returns arrays (interpolated or not). Same is with HERE_DOC.split

    >> %W(#{foo} Bar Bar\ with\ space)
    => ["Foo", "Bar", "Bar with space"]
    >> %w(#{foo} Bar Bar\ with\ space)
    => ["\#{foo}", "Bar", "Bar with space"]
  • %x(pwd) is used to call system bash commands. Use Open3 to call system shell commands
    require 'open3'
    stdout, stderr, status = Open3.capture3("sleep 10")

    capture3 will wait for all output, even you use ampersand sleep 10 & at the end of command. You can use system 'sleep 10 &' to get immediatelly back to ruby. To show stream output you can use

    STDOUT.sync = true
    # or $stdout.sync = true

    Also spawn

    pid = spawn('sleep 3') #=> 45376
    # do something while process is running
    Process.wait pid # wait for process to finishs

    Also Open3.capture3 can return back from background process if you dont use and use ampersand (sometimes do not block event without ampersand).

    # tmp/r.rb
    # run with: ruby tmp/r.rb
    require 'open3'
    puts 'start'
    # system 'sleep 10 &'
    stdin, stdout, stderr, wait_thr = Open3.popen3('sleep 10 && ls &')
    pid = wait_thr[:pid]  # pid of the started process
    stdin.close # stdin, stdout and stderr should be closed explicitly in this form.
    # if you uncommend this line, than it will wait for output
    # puts
    exit_status = wait_thr.value  # Process::Status object returned.
    puts 'end'

    Another solution to run in background is using IO

    require 'open3'
    require 'byebug'
    puts "start in #{}"
    cmd = 'touch tmp/txt && sleep 10 && ls'
    io = IO.popen cmd
    puts "cmd started in #{}"
    # does not exist the loop
    # begin
    #   while true do
    #     Process.getpgid
    #     printf '.'
    #     sleep 1
    #   end
    # rescue Errno::ESRCH
    #   puts 'cmd exits'
    # end
    puts 'end'


    pid = Process.fork { sleep 1 }
    # or simply
    pid = fork { sleep 1 }

    Process.kill("HUP", pid)

    To start multithread app you can use and join do do
        5.times do
          Net::HTTP.get('', '/index.html')
  • to send some data as json you can do it {|t| t.slice :id, :name}.to_json
  • return multiple values from method, you can use arrays and a, b = method but it is better to create new class for result.
  • if your service needs a lot of validation, raise exceptions to return message. Look at rails tips service example.
  • its convetion to use keyword fail instead of raise (it is used only if you re-raise exception)
  • ruby caret operator ^ is bitwise XOR, if you want square use power (exponent) **
  • if you do not know where something is called, for example some validation errors is added, you can dynamically extend objects link. So create module in runtime and extend the object or class, so it will stop on next errors#add method

    mod = do
      def add(*args)
  • you can open singleton_class of the object and redefine

    num =
    num.instance_exec {
      def == other
        other == 3
    num == 4
    # => false
    num == 3
    # => true
  • you can open a class with module_exec

    class Thing
    Thing.module_exec(arg) do |arg|
      def hello
  • get class based on string klass = Object.const_get "User"
  • get constant of class User::MAX, User.const_get 'MAX' or user.class.const_get :MAX. To check if exists use const_defined?
  • to check if class is defined you can use
    if eval("defined?(#{nameofclass}) == 'constant'")
  • random number [*1000..9999].sample
  • iterate over elements until first match a.take_while {|i| i < 3}
  • get a class from value my_string.constantize
  • you can find method using grep o.methods.grep /iden/
  • you can list all instance methods in current class but not in parrent class with o.methods - o.class.superclass.instance_methods or using o.class.instance_methods(false) (show only methods defined in that class, not inherited from Object).
  • in rails it is enough to exclude all default object methods o.methods - Object.methods


  • to suppress out of commands use ; in irb

    require 'rest-client'
  • underscore variable _ holds value of the last command. When used in code than it means we are not going to use it.


  • exception ruby video
  • before ruby program exists it uses some callbacks

    trap("EXIT") { puts 'trap("EXIT")' }
    at_exit { puts "at_exit" }
    END { puts "END" }
    raise "Not handled"
    a.rb:4:in `<main>': Not handled (RuntimeError)

Procs Using Proc ruby can be used in functional programming (it enable first-class functions - function can be created at runtime, assigned to variable, passed as argument and be return value from other functions). Ruby differs from other functional languages for which we can use name of function as variable with function type (in ruby we need to use Proc). First-class functions can be used for higher-order functions (functions which takes other functions as arguments).

Proc objects are blocks of code that have been bound to a set of local variables. Once bound, the code may be called in different contexts and still access those variables.

def gen_times(factor)
  shared = 1
  _proc = {|n| n*factor*shared }
  shared = 2
times3 = gen_times(3)
times5 = gen_times(5)

puts # 12 * 3 * 2
puts # 5 * 5 * 2

That is very similar to closures

You can exit from proc with next (return exits from method, break exits from loop). Or you can raise exception.

Proc object can be used as argument for functor (functor is higher-order function, ie takes function as argument).

def functor(a, b) b

p = { |i| puts i }
functor(p, 1) # 1

Shorthand notation for creating Procs is p = lambda {|i| puts i} but there are differences:

  • proc object does not check the number of params (you can call 1,2,3 or args will be nil). Lambda throws an error if number of params does not match. lamda are strict about arguments but procs are not
    my_lambda = ->(a, b) { a + b }
    # stabbly lambda operator is the same as
    my_lambda = lambda {|a, b| a + b }
    call_with_multiline_lambda(lambda do
    my_proc   =  { |a, b| a + b }
    # ArgumentError: wrong number of arguments (1 for 2)
    # TypeError: nil can't be coerced into Fixnum
  • also if you use return inside proc object, it will stop current scope, but for lambda it will not stop, it will just return value (so return is not usefull). Avoid explicit return since you can call proc in top level scope and raise error that it can not be returned.
    def double(callable_object) * 2
    l = lambda { 10 }
    double(l) # => 20
    def another_double
    p = { return 10 }
    result =
    return result * 2 # unreachable code!
    another_double # => 10

You can check if proc object is lambda with p.lambda?. Lambda are more similar to methods (checks arity and simply exit when call return)

You can call lambda in different ways (note that you can not call like regular function)

p = -> { puts "hi" } # preferred

Block can’t live alone, it is used as last param of methods. Every method has implicit argument for that block and since we do not have name, we use yield to call it. Someone prefer to use explicit argument so we know that method expects block.

def f(a, &block)
  # block.class # => Proc
  # we can use explicit a
  # but also we can use
  yield a

f(1) { |i| puts i }

Note that proc is not an actual argument and you can not use parenthesis around f(1, lambda {|i| puts i}). You can use ampersand & to convert back to block in method call or Method#to_proc.

def f(a)
  yield a
p = lambda {|i| puts i}
f(1, &p)

This is used for example in map functor. If we use ampersand for symbol, than it will be converted Symbol#to_proc and passed in.

class Symbol
  def to_proc
    lambda {|x, *args| x.send(self, *args)}

words = %w(Jane, aara, multiko)
upcase_words = {|w| w.upcase}
upcase_words = {|w| w.send :upcase}
# short notation
upcase_words =
# can not easilly add argument to map method

You can create proc callable object using trailblazer uber. We can skip extending (since it is empty module) but it is used for check if that class is callable (so we can use

class MyModel
  extend Uber::Callable
    puts options

MyModel.(a: 1)
# { :a => 1 }
MyModel.is_a? Uber::Callable

Another way is to include and use instance method call

class MyModel
  include Uber::Callable
  def call(ctx, *args)
end a: 1
# { :a => 1 } Uber::Callable
  • there are special methods in ruby
    • method_missing(method, *args) can be used to catch all missing methods
    • initialize to instantiate class
  • call method can be called (invoked) using three (maybe four) ways:
    • dot notation o.my_method
    • send o.send :my_method or o.send :my_property=, 'some_value'
    • grab method and call it o.method(:my_method).call
    • interpolated method call is using send like current_user.send "is_#{@model}_admin?" for something that need test or we just want to showcase

  • in rails there is args.extract_options! modify args and return last hash (or empty hash if there is no hash). Userfull if you need to pass attrs by position and as keyword arguments

    def my_method(*args)
      options = args.extract_options!
      puts "Arguments (array):  #{args.inspect}"
      puts "Options (hash):    #{options.inspect}"
    my_method(1, 2, :a => :b)
    # Arguments:  [1, 2]
    # Options:    {:a=>:b}
  • in rails you can set up default options with reverse merge

    options = options.reverse_merge(size: 25, velocity: 10)
    # is equivalent to
    options = { size: 25, velocity: 10 }.merge(options)

    if you need to deep merge (deep_merge method is deprecated) you can not use merge since it will override existing value. In this case it is better to set in initialization

    # this will override params[:project][:subscriber_attributes]
    def _project_params
        :name, :description, :priority, subscriber_attributes: Subscriber::PARAMS
        subscriber_attributes: {
    # so only way to put inside initialization
      @project =
  • to merge hash in conditional way you can use:
    hash = {
      a: 1
    }.merge(condition ? {b: 2} : {})
    hash.tap do |h|
      h[:b] = 2 if condition
    hash = {
      a: 1,
      b: (2 if condition),
      b: (condition? ? 2 : 3),
      c: if another_condition
    }.reject { |k, v| v.nil? }
    # or in Ruby 2.4
    hash = {
      a: 1,
      **(condition ? {b: 2} : {})
  • to run script and require byebug you can use

    ruby -rbyebug my_script_with_byebug.rb

    if you want to debug some ruby cli you can write scripts that check for rvm ruby version

    #!/usr/bin/env ruby

    If you use some gems like byebug, add gem 'byebug' to Gemfile and from that folder run

    ruby -rbyebug $(which vagrant) up
    bundle exec ruby -rbyebug $(which vagrant) up

    To exit from script you can use

    puts "max=#{max} should be greater than 10" and exit unless max > 10
  • you can use Resolv ruby class, but sometimes you get error uninitialized constant Resolv. You should reload all services or you can add to Gemfile

    gem 'rubysl-resolv'

Fast ruby using optimizations for speed

List of methods that are faster than other methods fast-ruby video benches

  • { }.flatten(1) should be replaced with enum.flat_map {} since we do not need to traverse twice
  • [1,2,3].map{ |n| next if n.even? ; 2*n } will return [2, nil, 6] so if you need to filter you can apply .compact
  • for big arrays you can use rails User.find_each do |user| end so it loads in batch of 1000 (It returns nil). You can use map, but than you again load all users at once.
  • use mutation methods (with !) so you do not need to create new objects. For example return hash.merge a: 1 should be replaced with return hash.merge! a: 1 but for hash we can also use hash[:a] = 1 whih is faster.
  • hash fetch method can be used to define default value if the key does not exists. You can use block instead of second argument to define default value, and it is faster since block is not called if key is not found so hash.fetch(:foo, :my_default_value_computation) should be replaced with hash.fetch(:foo) { my_default_value_computation } so my_default_value_computation is only evaluated when hash[:foo] is nil
  • string.gsub("asd", "qwe") should be replaced with string.sub("asd", "qwe") if we need to replace only first occurence, so no need to scan string to the end. Also you can use" ", "_")
  • replace all double new lines "\n\n" with single "\n" with s.squeeze("\n") so you can string with

    def strip(text)"\n", " ").squeeze(" ")
  • do not use exception for controll flow, so better is to check before
rescue NoMethodError

should be replaced

if respond_to?(:foo)
  • Time.parse('2001-01-01 06:06:06 UTC') should be raplaced with since we do not need to parse every time
  • instead of map(&:id) use pluck(:id)
  • to return hash after map you can use to_h [1,2].map { |x| [x, f(x)] }.to_h
  • to assign multiple attributes to active record object you can use Hash.slice (pluck is for database query) and assign_attributes to self

    new_user.assign_attributes user.slice :email, :phone

    On hash there is values_at to extract and assign

    a, b = hash.values_at :a, :b

    To fetch all attributes use user.attributes or specific ones user.attributes.values_at 'id', 'email' (if you have array of fields you need to expand user.attributes.values_at *fields). NOTE that we use string instead of symbols. On Rails 5.2 you can directly use slice on AR model user.slice :id, :name (before that you can do on user.attributes.slice :id)

  • safe navigation operator &. can be used instead of .try for example: user && can be written as user&.name. It is usefull with find_by for example User.find_by(email: '[email protected]')&.tap { |u| }
  • In ruby 2.3 there is also Array#dig and Hash#dig so instead of params[:a].try(:[], :b) you can params.dig(:a, :b). when you need to take value and not sure if provided (usually in some json response) if you want to find specific object you can use select{} || {}
    (array_or_hash.dig("users", "accounts")&.select{|account| account["type"] ==
    "facebook"} || {}).dig(0, "link")
  • rails has hash except my_hash.except :my_key to ignore only my_key value and returns also the hash. Also oposite select is slice my_hash.slice :my_key to pick {my_key: 1} (also returns hash)
  • If you need only values for specific keys use my_hash.values_at :my_key, :my_other_key. Also given some value you can find key my_hash.key some_value so use that instead of select {}.keys.first
  • rails has deep_transform_keys that can transform keys for your select hash.deep_transform_keys{ |key| key.to_s.titleize }
  • find in array by object property and return array of selected items {|i| i.user == current_user }. To grab only first one you can use array.detect {|el| } or alias array.find {|el|}.
  • ruby has Hash#invert which will replace keys and values. Hash#invert {a: 1, b: 2}.invert # {1: a, 2: b}
  • you can create hash with Hash[].
    >> [['a','b'], [1, 2]].transpose #=> [["a", 1], ["b", 2]]
    >> Hash[[['a','b'], [1, 2]].transpose] #=> {"a"=>1, "b"=>2}
  • map and collect are the same methods
  • to check if string starts with or ends with some substring prefix sufix you can use s.start_with? prefix or s.end_with? suffix
  • get substring based on position s[3..-4] or s[3, s.length - 3]

Url encode

  • URI.escape 'a b' # => 'a%20b'
  • URI.unescape 'a%20b' # => 'a b'
  • CGI::escape 'a b' # => 'a+b'
  • CGI.unescapeHTML 'a+b'
  • ERB::Util.url_encode
  • WEBrick::HTTPUtils.escape 'a b' # => a%20b

For url the best is to use WEBrick::HTTPUtils.escape since it will not convert / slashes but will convert space file name and square brackets [1]

module CommonPdf
  def escape(link)
    # space and square brackets needs to be escaped
    WEBrick::HTTPUtils.escape link

RSpec.describe CommonPdf do
  it '#escape' do
    object =
    object.extend CommonPdf
    sample_link = 'http://my.domain/file name [1].pdf'
    expect(object.escape(sample_link)).to eq 'http://my.domain/file%20name%20%5B1%5D.pdf'

Rails params use double backslash instead of one, for example if user fill in \d+ it will be saved as \\d+. To use with regexp you need to interpolate, like "str".scan(/#{my_param}/).first

Retry from rescue

  retries ||= 0
  puts "try ##{ retries }"
  raise "the roof"
  retry if (retries += 1) < 3

# output:
# try #0
# try #1
# try #2

Pry Instert a line binding.pry (or binding.irb if you want irb)

u = User.last
cd u
# to jump back you can:
# cd ..
# nesting
# jump-to 1

ls # list all methods, constants and variables for this user object
show-method full_name # or aliases: show-source or $
find-method xpath Nokogiri
stat Nokogiri::CSS.xpath_for
edit full_name # edit the source and reload automatically

play -l 123 # run line 123

wtf? # show stack trace of last exception
wtf??? # more lines
cat --ex # show exact line of exception

.git diff # run linux commands, just add prefix .
shell-mode # $ run commands, use #{} to interpolate ruby

For rails use gem 'pry-rails'




  • insert in strings with percentage "Nums are %f %f" % [1, 2]
  • 101 ruby code factoids
  • you can return only from methods, but not from do end blocks
  • ruby regex match will return matchData or nil if there is no match (so you need to check if not nil).
    /(\w)(\w)/.match("ab").captures # => ["a", "b"]

For MatchData you can call captures to get matched groups. You can use block form syntax of if

  exception.message.match(/for column (.*) at row/) do |match_data|
    detail += " for the field #{match_data.captures.first}"

If you do not want to use block syntax, you can replace if with array syntax and return first matching group

  detail = message[/[email protected]/, 1]

or you can cast match to string

  email = message.match(/\[email protected]\S+/).to_s

You can enable multiline match with m

  email = message.match /\[email protected]\S+/m

for error Lint/AmbiguousRegexpLiteral: Ambiguous regexp literal. Parenthesize the method arguments if it's surely a regexp literal, or add a whitespace to the right of the / if it should be a division you can use alternative forms for regular expressions

  a = '[\w\s]+'
  %r[#{a}] a'user_mailer.welcome'))

  # to add multiline modifier to"some reg", Regexp::MULTILINE)
  • decorators poro presenters thoughtbot example code slides video railsconf
  • you can count non nil values in array with [nil, 1, 2].compact # => [1,2] for empty string or space only string you can use presence and map
    [nil, "", " ", 1].map(&:presence).compact # => [1]
  • you can call methods with dot but also with double colon "a".size or "a"::size. You can put spaces or new lines anywhere a . size.
  • if you see error method_missing': undefined method this than you need to reinstall ruby rvm reinstall 2.3.1. But is related to rubygems 1420 and best patch is tenderlove comment
  • argument list length could be variable, there is splat star/asterix/expand * operator, where all other parameters are collected in array (note you can not use splat and last hash attribute) (splat is only for assignment for function parameters)

    def f(x, y, *allOtherValues)
    f(1, 2, 3, c: 4) # allOtherValues = [3, { c: 4} ]
    f(1, 2) # allOtherValues = []

    If it is used in method call than it is oposed:

    a = [1, 2]
    f(*a) # is the same as f(1, 2)

    Note that assigning variables by unpacking the array

    a = [1, 2, 3]
    b, *rest = *a
    b    # => 1
    rest # => [2, 3]
    a # => [1, 2, 3]

    Expand inside array or hash

    a = [3, 4]
    b = [1, 2, *a, 5]
    # => [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
    # it works fine for empty array
    a = []
    b = [1, 2, *a, 5]
    # => [1, 2, 5]
    # for hash use double splat
    a = { a: 1 }
    b = { b: 2, **a, c: 3}
    # => { b: 2, a: 1, c: 3 }

    so you can use destructuring block arguments (params), for example

    a = [[1, 2], [3, 4]]
    a.each_with_index do |(first, last), i|

    Last argument could be hash so it can grab all params

    def f(args)
      puts args.inspect
    f(a: 1, b: 2) # { a: 1, b: 2 }

    method default parameters can be set using ruby 2.0 keyword arguments def my_method(name:, position: 1);end They looks better than position arguments. It will be an error if we call without required arguments, for example my_method position: 2. It will be an error if we call with non existing arg my_method name: 'me', date: 3. You can mix with position arguments. It does not work if you instead of hash use object name: 'me' so you need to call with my_method name: 'me').name In ruby > 2.0 you can use keyword arguments (params are exploded decomposed), for which you can define default values or they need to be required (hash key is required)

    def f(x, y, c: , d: 1)
    f(1, 2, c: 1, d: 2)
    f(1, 2) # ArgumentError: missing keyword: c

    There exists double splats (**) which is used for hashes link Single splat convert to array, but double splat convert to hash. Note that it only takes symbol keys (and leave string keys). And double splat differs from hash last arg since hash can have default value, but it can be overwritten with some non hash. So use splat if you really need last param to be hash

    def f_with_hash(a, h = {})
    def f_with_double(a, **d)
    f_with_hash 1, 2 # => h = 2
    f_with_double 1, 2 # => ArgumentError: wrong number of arguments (given 2, expected 1)

    Another usage is when you require some keys, and other are optional. Also when using class optional value since you can not use variable name class so attribute class can be extracted

    def f(name:, **options)
      link_to 'h','a', class: options[:class]
    f(bla: 'asd') # ArgumentError (missing keyword: name)
    f(name: 'asd', class: 'a') # options = { class: 2 }

    Double splat can be used for merging hashes

    h = {
      b: 1,

    To see parameters of some function you can use


    Similar to asteriks, last parameter can be prefixed with ampersand (&) which means function expect a code block. A Proc object will be created and assigned to parameter.

    def f(a, &p) a
    # parenthesis for method params are required when passing using {}
    f(1) { |i| puts i } # output: 1
    # parenthesis are not required for do end
    f 1 do |i| puts i; end # output: 1

    Similarly, using ampersand in method call for a Proc object, it will be extrapolated/replaced with block f2 &p for which you can use: def f2; yield; end. This &p exists inside method with code block param.

  • sort hash by keys with h.sort and by values with h.sort {|a,b| a[1]<=>b[1]} or using sort_by with method o.sort_by &:published_at
h = { "a" => 20, "b" => 30, "c" => 10  }
h.sort                       #=> [["a", 20], ["b", 30], ["c", 10]]
h.sort {|a,b| a[1]<=>b[1]}   #=> [["c", 10], ["a", 20], ["b", 30]]
# example of group count {|a,b| a[1]<=>b[1]}

in rails you can get from ActiveRecord some objects by array of ids and if you want to keep order you can with index_by(&:id) that will create hash of {3: user3, 8: user8, 1: user1} but with no order, so you can sort that or slice


# or
people_by_id = Person.find(ids).index_by(&:id) # Gives you a hash indexed by ID {|id| people_by_id[id] }

But also ordering and other filtering can be done in sql

  • switch case example
case a
when 1..5
  "between 1 and 5"

When you need to match object class do not use object.class in case statement

# case receiver.class # this is wrong
# better not to use receiver.class == Customer, but receiver.is_a? Customer
# triple equal is used for that (for a.is_a? b, I can put label b on a)
# for module it tests for `.is_a?`
# for range it test for `.includes?`
# for regexp it test for `.match`
case receiver
when Customer

New in Ruby 2.5

  • Module#attr, attr_accessor, attr_reader, attr_writer, define_method, alias_method, undef_method and remove_method are now all public.

    class A
      def initialize
        @some_instance = 1
    a = # <A: @some_instance=1>
    A.attr_accessor :some_instance
    a.some_instance = 2
  • rescue/else/ensure are allowed inside do/end blocks (without begin/end)
  • bundler is standard library
  • Hash#transform_keys
  • yield_self (similar to rails’s try) (tap returns object instead of last line of the block).
to_upper = -> (str) { str.upcase }
  • tripple equal === is operator that for ranges calls .includes?, for regexp calls .match?, for proc calls .call
  • fake dummy objects could be generated from hash with:
    require "ostruct"
    d =, :type, :years).new 'Dule', :kayak, 35
    d = name: 'Dule' # => "Dule"

    If you need recursively generated OpenStruct than you can use it again "Dule")) # => "Dule"

    or you can convert to json and parse with Open struct class: h = { a: 1, b: { c: 1 }}; o=JSON.parse(h.to_json, object_class: OpenStruct);. So now you can use nested attributes o.b.c # => '1'. Another way is to use rails h = a: { b: { c: 1 }} so you can h.merge! b:1 Also you can define methods on OpenStruct properties, usefull when you need to call it with argument or if it is an array

    d =
      users: [ "Dule")
      ].tap do |users|
        users.define_singleton_method(:active) {users}
    ).tap do |d|
      d.define_singleton_method(:m1) do |param|
    d.m1 123 # => 123
  • raise error when hash key does not exists (instead of returning nil). default_proc will be executed if key does not exists
# config/initializers/constants.rb
class Constant
  def self.hash_or_error_if_key_does_not_exists(h)
    # raise if key does not exists h[:non_exists] or h.values_at[:non_exists]
    h.default_proc = -> (_h, k) { raise KeyError, "#{k} not found!" }
    # raise when value not exists h.key 'non_exists'
    def h.key(value)
      k = super
      raise KeyError, "#{value} not found!" unless k

      EDIT: 'edit',
# spec/models/constant_spec.rb
RSpec.describe Constant do
  it 'store string values' do
    expect(Constant.CUSTOMER_EVENTS[:EDIT]).to eq 'edit'
    expect(Constant.CUSTOMER_EVENTS.key 'edit').to eq :EDIT

  it 'raise error if key does not exists' do
    expect do
      Constant.CUSTOMER_EVENTS[:not_exists] raise_error KeyError

    expect do
      Constant.CUSTOMER_EVENTS.values_at 'not_exists' raise_error KeyError

    expect do
      Constant.CUSTOMER_EVENTS.key 'not_exists' raise_error KeyError
  • use do ... end block when there is a side effects and curly braces than you need return value { ... }

  • documentation using rdoc SimpleMarkup format which is pretty mature, example is on but also Rails uses it
    # test rdoc in command line
    echo "+:to_param+" | rdoc --pipe
  • yard is newer and it supports links syntax for yard is simple markdown using @tags. It supportds rdoc markup.
    # This is a doc
    # @example
    #    code
    # @param
    # @return [String] name
    # @deprecated
    # @see
    # :section: Related methods
    # Those methods are related
    # def input # :nodoc:
    # class M # :nodoc: all

    To run use:

  • convert cast single value and array value to array Array(1) and Array([1])
  • hash with indifferent access (symbol or string) this is Rails ActiveSupport h = a: 2 so you can use h[:a] or h['a']
  • inserting key value in hash at specific position
    class Hash
    def insert_before(key, kvpair)
      arr = to_a
      pos = arr.index(arr.assoc(key))
      if pos
        arr.insert(pos, kvpair)
        arr << kvpair
      replace Hash[arr]
  • string split(' ').join(' ') can be replaced with ' a b'.strip.squeeze
  • if you need snake case from class name, you can Of you need class from controller name users_controller you can controller_name.classify.constantize which returns UsersController. Classify uses camellize and singularize ie inflectors To check if exists use `[‘my_table’].inject(Object) { |c, n| c.const_defined? n}

    => true false` source not sure why this does not raise error, but Object.const_defined? 'my_table' railse

  • to create array of hashes or array of new objects you can not use [{}]*2 or []*2 since that will be the same object in both places. You have to use { }
  • interate and generate hash can be done using inject and accumulator
    array = [['A', 'a'], ['B', 'b'], ['C', 'c']]
    hash = array.inject({}) do |memo, (key, value)|
      memo[key] = value
    hash # => {'A' => 'a', 'B' => 'b', 'C' => 'c'}
    # find the longest word
    longest = %w{ cat sheep bear }.inject do |memo,word|
       memo.length > word.length ? memo : word
    longest                                         #=> "sheep"

    but better is to use each_with_object({}) { |el, a| accumulator is last param not the first. You can summarize using .inject or .each_with_object or synonim is .reduce

  • write file save to file in single line
    File.write '/path/to/file', 'My Text', mode: 'a'

    To read one liner

    file_content ="/path/to/file")
  • for read from a file file = you can call But you can create String io io = 'asd' and call That is usefull for testing when you read from standard input
    io = 'some content'
    $stdin = io
    gets # 'some content'
  • to check if ruby is called from cli
    #!/usr/bin/env ruby
    if __FILE__==$0
      puts "ergs=#{ARGV}"
  • to reopen the class you can use class eval like
    Cell::TestCase.class_eval do
      include ::Capybara::DSL
  • {} and do end have different precedence so when rubocop alerts for Style/Lambda: Use the lambda method for multi-line lambdas you need parenthesis for example scope :active, (lambda do ... end)

  • .map two arguments is not easy * todo