Some of angular attribute directives:

  • ng-app="store" defines root element of module “store” which can have many controllers
  • ng-controller="StoreController as store" defines controller, but it is usually defined in routes for specific template
  • ng-repeat="product in store.products" iteration of this element (you can use also ng-if="$even", or $index variables). Iterating over object is ng-repeat="(key, value) in data"
  • ng-show="product.CanPurchase",ng-hide="expession", ng-disabled="mySwitch" to show/hide/disable element. In contrast, ng-if adds new scope or totally removes DOM element.
  • <img ng-src="{{ product.image}}"> to prevent browser to load empty src, this is only place where directive use {{ }}
  • ng-click=" tab = 2 " to run a code on click
  • ng-class="{ active: tab === 1 }" set class to key when value is true (good to have ng-init="tab = 0")
  • ng-model="review.terms" bind value of current input element to variable
  • ng-bind="review.terms" bind innerHTML of this element to the variable (can be expression)
  • ng-submit="reviewCtrl.addReview(product)" call function on submit
  • ng-include="'product-title.html'" include template
  • ng-view is placeholder where routes inject templates

Angular expressions can’t have conditionals and loops, but have filters. Note that angular expressions don’t have access to window only scope so no help from parseInt(), String() and similar.

$scope.$watch('email', function() { $scope.test(); }) can be used to rerun validation check. watch first argument (string or function) is evalued on each digest and second argument (callback listener) is called when a returning value of first argument is changed (for array, use length). To use with controllerAs syntax you need to use bind

app.controller('Ctrl', function ($scope) { = 'name';

  $scope.$watch(angular.bind(function () {
    return this.title
  }), function (oldVal, newVal) {


Expressions in angular directives <button ng-click="foo = 5"> are parsed and evaluated. $parse() takes expression and returns function which takes two arguments: context and locals (overrides).

$ = 3;

var parseFn = $parse(‘foo = 5’);
// or
$scope.$eval(‘foo = 5’);

$; // returns 5

You can check if some property bar on foo is not null: $parse('bar.baz.quux')(foo) will return undefined instead of throwing an exception.

You can manually trigger digest with $scope.$apply("foo = 5") it calls $rootScope.$digest() which propagates down to every child scope link. With ControllerAs syntax, you need to inject $scope and can not use expression, but just empty $scope.$apply(). You can not call $apply in callbacks for ng-mouseover ng-click since digest is in progress. It is usable in non angular callbacks document.getElementById('b').addEventListener 'mouseover'.

Filters: {{ data | filter:options }}

  • strings {{ 'Some string' | date:'MM/dd/yyy @ h:mma' }} can also be currency, lowecase, uppercase
  • iterators ng-repeat="product in store.products | filter: search | orderBy: '-price' | limitTo: -5 " use only products that match value of search (any property of product that match search string) order by desc price and show last 5. If we want to filter only than bind input to so search becomes object, for example ng-model="".

View can use directives, filters. Controller and services can depend on some providers.

  • all objects are joined using dependency injection for specialized objects (controllers, directives, filters, animations) or custom service. There are 5 types of recipe for creating object with injector: Provider (is the main one, other are syntactic sugar on top of this provider recipe), Value, Factory, Service and Constant. You can use DI when defining components (only controller can have $scope and resolve dependency) or in run methods (can not inject Providers) or config method (can not inject Service or Value) on module. Only module can define other components: controller and factories: directive, filter, value, factory, service.
  • all services in Angular are singletons. injector uses each recipe at most once to create the object. The injector then caches the reference for all future needs. Controllers are instantiated every time app needs it.
  • use strict dependency injection ng-app="myApp" ng-strict-di" to raise error when we use implicit annotations (function($scope) instead of ['$scope', function($scope)])

Special Purpose Objects: controlles, filters, directives, animations

  • controller methods can be defined on $scope or on this (so we reference them MyController.myMethod)
angular.module('controllers', [])
  .controller('MyController', ['$http', '$scope', function($http, $scope) {
    this.my_value = 2;
    $scope.myMethod = function() { return 2 };
  • new filter definition should return function
# filter
.filter('checkmark', function() {
  return function(input) {
    return input ? '\u2713' : '\u2718';

It can be used like {{ phone.available | checkmark }}

  • two types of directives: element directive (UI widget) <product-title></product-title> or attribute directive (mixins like tooltip) <div product-title></div>.

      .directive('productTitle', function(){
        return {
          restict: 'E', // 'E' element, 'A' attribute (default), 'C' class
          templateUrl: 'product-title.html',
          controller: function() {},
          controllerAs: 'panel',
      .directive('enter', function(scope, element, attrs){}
        // default is 'A' so no need to write return {  link: function(){}
        return function(scope,element, attrs) {
          element.bind("mouseenter", function() {
            scope.$apply(attrs.enter); # this will call argument string, ie some controller method
    • directives has transclusion() to create new scope
    • controllerAs: 'vm' have some problems (but works as vm1)

Services for creating objects: Value, Factory, Service, Provider, Constant

  • egghead learn when to use a service, factory, or provider
  • Value recipe, can’t have other dependencies

    var myApp = angular.module('myApp', []);
    myApp.value('clientId', 'a12345654321x');
  • Factory recipe use other services, is a function and lazy initialized. It returns object

    # factory
    .factory('sport', function() { 
      return {
        title: "Kayak"
    # factory that use ngResource provider
      .factory('Phone', ['$resource', function($resource) {
        return $resource('phones/:phoneId', { phoneId: "@id", format: 'json' }, {
          query: {method: 'GET', params: { phoneId: 'phones' }, isArray: true },
          save:  { method: 'PUT' },
          create: { method: 'POST' }
  • service can be added with .factory which returns new SomeFun(arg), but it’s shorter with .service function. Service methods are defined as properties of this. Service just use $injector to create new instance of service’s contructor function.

    function UnicornLauncher(apiToken) {
      this.launchedCount = 0;
      this.launch = function() {
    myApp.factory('unicornLauncher', ["apiToken", function(apiToken) {
      return new UnicornLauncher(apiToken);
    // or
    myApp.service('unicornLauncher', ["apiToken", UnicornLauncher]);

Factory has more flexibility since they can return functions which can be newed.

  • Provider is broader factory, it returns object with a $get method that is a factory function. Provider can be configured. For provider name unicornLauncher angular registers unicornLauncher and unicornLauncherProvider injectables.

    myApp.provider('unicornLauncher', function UnicornLauncherProvider_name_not_important() {
      var useTinfoilShielding = false;
      this.useTinfoilShielding = function(value) {
        useTinfoilShielding = !!value;
      this.$get = ["apiToken", function unicornLauncherFactory(apiToken) {
        return new UnicornLauncher(apiToken, useTinfoilShielding);
    myApp.config(["unicornLauncherProvider", function(unicornLauncherProvider) {
  • $resource by default save is POST, so we need to change for rails PUT, and add create. Factories need to return object. That object is bindable in all places where we use Phone factory. It can be used like $ = Phone.get({ phoneId: $routeParams.phoneId }); $scope.phones = Phone.query();

  • Constant recipe can create value that is available in both config and run phase. Don’t use for example DEFAULT image_url since is better to do that in backend on one place

      .constant( 'CONFIG', {
        SERVER_URL: '',
        S3UPLOAD: {
          BUCKET: 'duleorlovic-test1',
          API_URL: '/api/v1/s3_access_token',
        USER_ROLES: {
          ADMIN: 'admin',
          EDITOR: 'editor',
          GUEST: 'guest',
      .run(['CONFIG','$rootScope',function(CONFIG, $rootScope) { 
        // in html use $root.CONFIG.USER_ROLES.ADMIN
        $rootScope.CONFIG = CONFIG


  • $rootScope has not parent and was created directly from Scope() class (not through $.new method). It is used for event handling $.broadcast() (down to child scopes) and $.emit() (up in the scope hierarchy).
  • you can also use for something that does not change often, like $rootScope.user = user. In templates you can just write and it will find `user` at root scope (can't use).

Share error messages

For form name myForm we can check myForm.$valid for all fields that we put validation with required property on input elements (form can have novalidate attribute to prevent browser default behavior, or we can use ng-required="true"). Also fields have internal properties: $dirty (user has interacted), $valid, $invalid and$pristine (has not interacted with field yet). To show client side errors, you can use ng-messages instead of dealing with ng-show. Some example validations are: ng-minlength=5 ng-maxlength=20 ng-required="true". We can share messages with ng-messages-include, but that somehow does not work well. There are also errors from server (resp.errors or Button is disabled until form is valid.

<form name="editMenuItemForm" ng-submit="vm.update(,editMenuItemForm)">
  <input type="email" name="email" ng-model=""
  ng-required="true" ng-pattern="/^.+@.+\..+$/"
  ng-change="$setValidity('server', true)">
  <div ng-messages="$error">
    <div ng-message="required">This field is required</div>
    <div ng-message="email">This field must be an email</div>
    <div ng-message="minlength">Your field is too short</div>
    <div ng-message="pattern">Must look like an email</div>
    <div ng-message="server">{ { }}</div>

  <md-button type="submit" class="md-raised md-primary"

This works also for nested attributes, just need to reference them with editMenuItemForm["menu_item_options.price"] (snake case is rails style) and create one in controller vm.menuItem.menu_item_options_attributes = [{}] unless and reference with input(ng-model='vm.menuItem.menu_item_options_attributes[0].price'

This has problem with destroy button and serverside validation since ng-message is visible only when you focus that input (probably digest is perfomed only on submit)

On server we should respond with render json: @menu_item.errors, status: :bad_request so we catch model errors, for example If that field is not on form, for example unauthorized response = ['Authorized only'] than we show toast. If you need to show toast but don’t know if is object or array than you can use toastr.error JSON.stringify It should be object and you need to know the key.

For arrays you can use two methods: s.toString() and String(s). [].toString() works fine but will raise if instead of [] is nil. So I prefer to use String(...) in controllers String(null)=="null". Please not that String is window function so it is not available in angular expressions ie for ng-message but there we are sure that value is not nill.

Fields that are not valid (for example we put space in name == undefined) are not sent so we need to disable button when form is not valid or check if editMenuItemForm.$valid before we call menuItem.update(). If we disable button than we need to put ng-change="form.field.$setValidity('server', true)" to remove server error on change, so submit button is shown again.

# in controller
vm.update = (menuItem, editMenuItemForm) ->
    (menu_item_from_server) ->
    (resp) ->
      $log.debug adminEditMenuItemController: 'update error', resp_data:
      for field of
        if editMenuItemForm[field]
          editMenuItemForm[field].$setValidity('server', false)
          toastr.error String[field]
      vm.serverErrors =

$q service

In $q service for promise object we can call then(successCallback, errorCallback, notifyCallback) but also finally(callback, notifyCallback) for clean up.

Here is example of Customer service

# www/js/services/
angular.module 'starter'
  .service 'CustomerAuth', ($http, CONSTANT, $q) ->
    service = this
    service.sessionId = null

    service.login = (customer_login) ->
        (resolve, reject) ->
            CONSTANT.SERVER_URL + '/customer/sessions.json'
            customer_session: customer_login
            (response) ->
              resolve response
            (response) ->
              reject response


  • use controller as vm in view and var vm = this in controller so you don’t need to inject $scope (we need $scope when we want to access something in promise catch = -> $scope.vm.profileForm = "a")
  • in directives you need to prefix $root to access rootScope, for example $root.user

  • by Angular conventions, lowerCamelCase is used for factory names that won’t be new’ed. Controllers and services should be UpperCased.

    Filenames are lowerCamerCase, but folders are underscored or dashed src/app/menu_items/menuItems.jade. Template always match controller name

  • johnpapa style guide
    • use var vm = this; (or more descriptive loginVm). Use $scope only for publish/subscribe events $emit, $broadcast and $on.
    • use factory that returns instead of service
  • for enabling html5 links, you need to put <base href="/"> before app.css link
  • sometimes you need to rm -rf .tmp since gulp server cache miss
  • angular.copy is usefull for forms and cancel button. Note that object is disconnected, so if you store a list of all items, you need to angular.copy back to original.

    Also when you receive an array from server MyService.locations = locationsFromServer will assign new pointer, but old vm.locations = MyService.locations will still point to old array.

  • $log can show object with source location, for example $log.debug adminController: 'update error', resp_data: It is angular service which you can disable in production

    angular.module 'my-module'
      .config($logProvider) ->
        $logProvider.debugEnabled = false
  • inside ui router resolve, js errors are completelly hidden

Check some awesome links



Usage <md-button ng-really-click="vm.delete(item)" ng-really-reject="vm.cancel(item)" ng-really-message="Are you sure?">Remove</md-button>

# app/components/
angular.module 'myApp'
  .directive 'ngReallyClick', ->
    restrict: 'A'
    link: (scope, element, attrs) ->
      element.bind 'click', ->
        message = attrs.ngReallyMessage
        if message && confirm(message)
          scope.$apply attrs.ngReallyClick
        else if attrs.ngReallyReject
          scope.$apply attrs.ngReallyReject

Data disable with Processing…

Similar to rails data-disable-with="Processing..." here is directive. Angular ignores data- from data-disable-with. Similar to angular-autodisable There was some problem with JQlite and find with [type=submit] so use my fork


If you get circular dependency error like Uncaught Error: [$injector:cdep] Circular dependency found: $state <- unauthorizedInterceptor <- $http <- $templateFactory <- $view <- $state, than use $injector and `$state = $injector.get ‘$state’ like in the following example.

Redirect to login state on every unauthorized response

# www/js/interceptors/
angular.module 'starter'
  .factory 'unauthorizedInterceptor', ($q, $injector) ->
    responseError: (rejection) ->
      if rejection.status == 401
        $state = $injector.get('$state')
        $state.go 'login'
      $q.reject rejection

# www/js/
angular.module 'starter'
  .config ($httpProvider) ->
    $httpProvider.interceptors.unshift 'unauthorizedInterceptor'

Interceptor that will set data.error in case there is network error

angular.module 'starter'
  .factory 'connectionInterceptor', ($q, NotifyService) ->
    responseError: (rejection) ->
      if rejection.status <= 0 # server offline
        unless &&
            error: 'There is a problem with connection'
      $q.reject rejection

UI View, Angular route

angular-route is separated package and need to be added as module dependency and configured. config needs Providers (factory for service that will be configured) for example $routeProvider and run or controller needs service for example $route

angular.module('myApp',[ 'ngRoute', 'myAppControllers' ])
.config(function($routeProvider, $locationProvider){
  .when('/phones/:id', {
    templateUrl: 'details.html',
    controller: 'PhoneDetailCtrl',
  .when('/phones', {
    templateUrl: 'list.html',
    controller: 'PhoneListCtrl',
  .otherwise({redirectTo: '/phones'});

It is used with directive <ng-view></ng-view> which is replaced with given template.

UI Router

ui-router is nice but documentation is not so simple, so here are examples:

  • stateParams can be defined with :contactId or {contactId}
  • query params are defined like ?contactId
  • navigating with ui-sref ui-sref="admin.menu_items({staurantId:})" or with $state.go 'tab.location_ticket_details', locationTicketId:
  • ui-sref-active to add class on navigational links that are active
  • if you want to completely change the template with edit template, than wrap it

    # show.html
      My name is 
    # edit.html
      <input name="name">
    angular.module 'my'
    .config ($stateProvider) ->
        .state 'myAccount',
          url: '/my-account'
          templateUrl: 'show.html'
          controller: 'MyController'
          controllerAs: 'vm'
            myAccountInitialData: (myAccountInitialData) ->
        .state 'myAccount.edit',
          url: '/edit'
          templateUrl: 'edit.html'
          # no need to resolve here since this is inside MyController
  • When you need double click to go to nested state, you are probably coverting that state with some other state stackoverflow route resolution problem.

  • resolve initialData before new state is activated link

    # src/app/my_account/
    # the promise resolution procedue, ie
    # onFulfilled returns promise, when it is fulfilled than fullfill parent
    angular.module 'menucardsAngular'
    .factory "myAccountInitialData", (Restaurant, $auth, $q) ->
        user =  $auth.validateUser()
        $q.all([user]).then (results) ->
          restaurant = Restaurant.query({}, { id: results[0].restaurant_id })
          $q.all([restaurant]).then ( results ) ->
            restaurant: results[0]
    # src/app/my_account/
    angular.module 'menucardsAngular'
      .controller 'MyAccountController', (myAccountInitialData, $log) ->
        $log.debug "MyAccountController"
        vm = this =
    # src/app/my_account/
    angular.module 'menucardsAngular'
      .config ($stateProvider) ->
          .state 'myAccount',
            url: '/my-account'
            templateUrl: 'app/my_account/myAccount.html'
            controller: 'MyAccountController'
            controllerAs: 'vm'
              myAccountInitialData: (myAccountInitialData) ->
  • if you need to do some jQuery on state change (not only when controller loads, but when we change states inside current controller) you can listen to events on $scope (this scope is destroyed when controller is destroyed)

    $scope.$on '$stateChangeStart', (e, toState, toParams, fromState, fromParams) ->
      $scope.sectionName = toParams.sectionName
      if == 'menu'
        $timeout ->
          new scrollItem 'cart'
    # this is when user lands on menu page
    $timeout ->
      if $('#cart').first()
        new scrollItem 'cart'
  • multiple views you can not have two different active state, so it will toggle


egghead batarang. Just select element and in console type $ = 'dule';$scope.apply()

Usually I define module angular.module 'name', [] only in one place src/app/

Since some old deleted templates could remove stuff, I run with gulp clean && gulp serve --api localhost:3001 -l

Interval for automatic updates

Order.query({status: 'active'}, {restaurantId: user.restaurant_id}).then (orders) ->
  vm.orders = orders

vm.youngerThan = new Date
# could be that order happens after previous query on server and before current time, not likely
# more likely is that order happened before query on server but after current time
# so it will show up twice, that's why we check if alredy there
    Order.query({status: 'active', youngerThan: vm.youngerThan}, {restaurantId: user.restaurant_id}).then (orders) ->
      for order in orders.reverse
        vm.orders.unshift(order) if vm.orders[0] && vm.orders[0].id !=
    vm.youngerThan = new Date


You can use angular-paginate-anything to show pagination links on your page. On server you can use kaminari with some before filter or clean_pagination which I prefer. It is very easy to start. For angular-rails-resource I need to use $timeout hack

$scope.$on 'pagination:loadPage', (event, status, config) ->
  $timeout ->
    vm.users = (userObject) -> new User userObject


  • you can have another ng-click inside ng-click (ie button inside button) and you can stop propagation with ng-click="vm.edit(); $event.stopPropagation();"
  • don’t know why someone would use ng-repeat="o in vm.objects tack by since DOM is updated always, even o.title is changed. link only usage is that directive link function is not called until we add new items or updateId look console log. If we update title Link function will not be called although DOM will be updated.

  • sample app