book 5 categories:

  • base: usually single element (a,h1) or pseudo-class (a:hover) selectors (but not a class my-class selector). Its default styling for elements in all occurences on the page.
    • p + p is sibling selector, so only for paragraph that is after paragraph (so it wont affect first p, only ones that are immediately after p)
    • p ~ p is general sibling so all p elements who has sibling p which is before (not neccessary immediatelly before).
  • layout: divide page into sections. prefix with l- like l-inline
  • module: reusable parts: callouts, products When used in different part of page you should use subclassing classname-module, for example: <div class="pod pod-callout"> instead of specificity war .callout .pod target element.
  • state: how module or layout looks in particular state (active/inactive, home page/sidebar, small/big screens), prefixed with is-, like is-hidden. For specific states of module, you can use is-callout-minimized and place it inside module code so its loaded only when module is loaded (for just-in-time loading). State changes can happen by: class name (js add/remove class), pseudo class (:hover,:focus) and media query. Always keep module all css code inside same file.
  • theme: how module or layout might look

BEM: Block __Element - -Modifier & getbem is a way to write classes with -- and __ so instead of menu-item-visible write block-name__elem-name–mod-name menu__item--visible

blocks are independent page component that contains other blocks or elements. elements can’t be used outside of a block and they start with __. modifiers defines appearance and behavior on block or elements and start with -- (or _). They always prefixed with parent block/element name, so instead of button active we write button button--active 3 reasons for that: single level specificity, item button active don’t know if item--active or button--active and we clearly see that it is modifier and not some other block/element.

  • instead of nested elements .o-grid .o-grid__item {} since BEM suggest to use unique class name, you need to define only single level .o-grid__item {}. If you have long class name .o-grid__item-search-button-text-svg-icon than it should be replaced with single element .o-grid__svg_icon since icon do not relate to item, search or button, it current position is inside, but not have to be.
  • do not use semantic tags (a.button {}), its better to write <button class="button button--mod"> beause you can change tag to <a> and you can mix button class on other places
  • do not write nested rules, except when you write for block modifier element .block--modifier .block__element { background: blue }
  • do not use global modifier that you want to apply to any class like block hidden. Better is to use block--hidden
  • when you have nested blocks than instead block__nested-block__double-nested-block use block__nested-block and block__double-nested-block or nested-block__double-nested-block depending on how you can move double-nested-block

  • do not override styles of another block


  • key selector is the right most part of selector (could be #id, .class, tag h1 or universal [hidden="true"] category). Avoid plain universal and avoid mixing other three categories.
  • avoid descendant selector table[hidden="true"] td tr, betters is to use child selector table[hidden="true"] > td > tr but event that should be avoided with duplicating attributes tr[hidden="true"]
  • rely on inheritance, instead of #bookmarkMenuItem > .menu-left { list-style-image: url(blah) } its enough to write #bookmarkMenuItem { list-style-image: url(bla) }


BIO SEM Scalable Extensible Maintainable, BIO Bem Inverted triangle css, Object Oriented css

Scalable means reusable ie you can use c-btn on link or button and it will look the same, and wont impace sibling or parent elements. Extensible means you can add new features without breaking current usage. c-btn--3d use c-btn and add 3d effect to it.

/* =Mixins
@mixin button-3d($color) {
  box-shadow: 0px 4px darken($color, 20%);
/* =Objects style
.c-btn {
  background-color: transparent;
  border: 0;
  border-radius: rem(3);
  color: $black;
  padding: rem(5) rem(10);
  text-decoration: none;

.c-btn--large {
  font-size: rem(25);

.c-btn--3d {
  &.c-btn--yellow {
    @include button-3d($yellow);

  &.c-btn--blue {
    @include button-3d($blue);

.c-btn--yellow {
  background-color: $yellow;

.c-btn--blue {
  background-color: $blue;
  color: $white;

CSS variables

  • you can set to :root { --my-var: red; } and than use later with p { color: var(--my-var); }. Those properties are inherited from elements where are defined.

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  • you can set default value of variable $my-var: 123 !default;. This has no effect if variable is already defined. Note that you can not override variable, so in order to change value, you need to have $my-var: 111 before this !default line.
  • to use $variable inside calc() you need to interpolate
      height: calc(100% - #{$body_padding})
  • you can select this using &

    .a:hover {
      background: blue;
    // is the same as
    .a {
      &:hover {
        background: blue;
  • for loop in scss
    @for $i from 0 through 5 {
      .five-minute-markers:nth-of-type(#{$i}) {
        transform: rotateZ(calc(-30deg * #{$i}));

  • @extend .email-container will copy definitions from email container
  • use functions like map-keys

style guides