Other examples




L=/usr/local/bin/flynn && curl -sSL -A "`uname -sp`" https://dl.flynn.io/cli | zcat >$L && chmod +x $L

Fastline Ci

https://github.com/fastlane/ci Open source, self hosted, mobile optimized CI powered by fastlane (opensource tools for building mobile apps). I like it because it is ruby. It requires Fastfile



After downloading client and server dev file, double click and install, you can start with https://docs.gocd.org/current/installation/install/server/linux.html#debian-based-distributions-ie-ubuntu

sudo /etc/init.d/go-server start
# Started Go Server on http://main:8153/go

sudo /etc/init.d/go-agent start
# http://localhost:8153/go

Quite complicated…


You can create another github user bot (and invite him to collaborate on your project) and use pronto to post comments on commit, pull request or status

sed -i Gemfile -e '/group :development do/a  \
  gem "pronto", require: false\
  gem "pronto-rubocop", require: false\
  gem "pronto-brakeman", require: false\
  gem "pronto-eslint", require: false\
  gem "pronto-jshint", require: false\
  gem "pronto-poper", require: false\
  gem "pronto-rails_best_practices", require: false\
  gem "pronto-reek", require: false\
  gem "pronto-scss", require: false\
  gem "pronto-flay", require: false\

Generate Personal Access Token for the bot user and export in your env file so pronto command can post comments

pronto run -f github
pronto run -f github_status
pronto run -f github_pr

You need to set up target commit (default is master) to which it needs to compare current HEAD. It compare only changes that occurs between those two (changes on master are ignored).

https://github.com/kulakajak/pronto/commit/69cf86b6ca031c7a62bfa4b24db986d81b95f12c trkbot

https://christoph.luppri.ch/articles/2017/03/05/how-to-automatically-review-your-prs-for-style-violations-with-pronto-and-rubocop to find last pull request id

Github actions

docs https://help.github.com/en/github/automating-your-workflow-with-github-actions/workflow-syntax-for-github-actions#in-this-article forum https://github.community/t5/GitHub-Actions/bd-p/actions ruby, mysql is included https://help.github.com/en/actions/automating-your-workflow-with-github-actions/software-installed-on-github-hosted-runners#ubuntu-1804-lts with root/root username/password example https://boringrails.com/articles/building-a-rails-ci-pipeline-with-github-actions/

# .github/workflows/ruby.yml
name: Ruby

on: [push]


    runs-on: ubuntu-latest
      RAILS_ENV: test
      # those are used to connect from Rails
      PGHOST: localhost
      PGDATABASE: rails_db_test
      PGUSER: rails_db_user
      PGPASSWORD: postgres

        image: postgres:11.8
          POSTGRES_DB: rails_db_test
          POSTGRES_USER: rails_db_user
          POSTGRES_PASSWORD: postgres
        ports: ["5432:5432"]
        # needed because the postgres container does not provide a healthcheck
        options: --health-cmd pg_isready --health-interval 10s --health-timeout 5s --health-retries 5

        image: mysql:5.7
          MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: password
        - 3306
        options: --health-cmd "mysqladmin ping" --health-interval 10s --health-timeout 5s --health-retries 10
    - uses: actions/[email protected]
    - name: Set up Ruby 2.6.3
      uses: ruby/[email protected]
        ruby-version: 2.6.3
    - name: Set up Node
      uses: actions/[email protected]
        node-version: 14
    - name: Set up Chrome
      run: |
        wget -q -O - https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | sudo apt-key add -
        sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install -y xvfb google-chrome-stable
    - name: Install dependecies
      run: |
        sudo apt-get -yqq install libpq-dev
        gem install bundler
        bundle install --jobs 4 --retry 3
        yarn install
        # not sure if we need this for system tests
        # bundle exec rake webdrivers:chromedriver:update # gem 'webdrivers'
    - name: Setup test database
      run: |
        bin/rails db:create
        bin/rails db:migrate
    - name: Run tests
      run: |
        bundle exec rake
        # minitest
        bundle exec rails test
        bundle exec rails test:system
    - name: Heroku staging
        # generate HEROKU_API_KEY with heroku auth:token
        HEROKU_API_KEY: $
        HEROKU_APP_NAME: "move-index"
      if: github.ref == 'refs/heads/master' && job.status == 'success'
      run: git push https://heroku:[email protected]/$HEROKU_APP_NAME.git origin/master:master

Another way to deploy to heroku is using https://github.com/AkhileshNS/heroku-deploy Note to use single quote instead of double quoted strings

    if: ${ { github.event_name == 'push' && github.ref == 'refs/heads/master' }}
    needs: Test
    runs-on: ubuntu-latest

      - uses: actions/[email protected]
      - name: Deploy to heroku
      - uses: akhileshns/[email protected] # This is the action
          heroku_api_key: $
          heroku_app_name: "YOUR APP's NAME" #Must be unique in Heroku
          heroku_email: "YOUR EMAIL"

With postgres: image: postgres:11 I got an error, so I switch to old 10.8

##[error]Failed to initialize, postgres service is unhealthy.

Secrets store

    MY_TOKEN: $

Each job runs in fresh instance of the virtual environment specified by runs-on. env can be defined globaly, for each job, or step. jobs.<job_id>.steps.if is used to filter which step is run

  - name: examples
    if: github.event_name == 'pull_request' && github.event.action == 'unassigned'
    if: github.ref == 'refs/heads/master' && job.status == 'success'
    # previous step failed
    if: failure()

uses is external steps, sometime needs parameter with. Format is {owner}/{repo}@{ref} like Those setup ruby can pick one of the versions https://help.github.com/en/actions/automating-your-workflow-with-github-actions/software-installed-on-github-hosted-runners

  uses: actions/[email protected]
  uses: actions/[email protected]

Github actions capistrano deploy is simple run cap production deploy but you need to enable ssh keys. It is enabling using https://github.com/marketplace/actions/webfactory-ssh-agent

  • generate specific keys for the project, make sure you can access with deploy user using this key
    # generate new key pair on remove server
    ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 4096 -m pem -f my_app_ci
    # copy my_app_ci.pub to .ssh/authorized_keys on $PRODUCTION_IP, this will
    # success since ssh will offer your other keys ~/.ssh/id_rsa
    ssh-copy-id -i my_app_ci [email protected]$PRODUCTION_IP
    # test if you can connect using only my_app_ci
    ssh -o 'IdentitiesOnly=yes' -i my_app_ci [email protected]$PRODUCTION_IP

    store private key cat my_app_ci as project secret CI_SSH_PRIVATE_KEY

  • on production generate ssh-keygen and add public key to github ssh keys so that it can download source from github

Github actions do not support [ci skip] in commit message. Workaround which marks as failed (send email message also) https://github.com/srz-zumix/ci-skip/blob/master/docs/github/WORKAROUND.md

For other checks you can skip with two lines and skip check https://help.github.com/en/github/collaborating-with-issues-and-pull-requests/about-status-checks#skipping-and-requesting-checks-for-individual-commits

git commit -am'Try

skip-check: true'

Use github actions locally on docker using https://github.com/nektos/act https://simplabs.com/blog/2021/03/15/trying-your-github-actions-locally/

# install act
curl https://raw.githubusercontent.com/nektos/act/master/install.sh | sudo bash

You can configure act https://github.com/nektos/act#configuration using .actrc file. For example if you want to use another base image

act -P ubuntu-latest=ghcr.io/catthehacker/ubuntu:full-latest



https://github.com/actions/cache/blob/master/examples.md#node—yarn Cache folder needs to be inside working directory.

      - uses: actions/[email protected]
      - name: Set up Ruby 2.6.3
        uses: ruby/[email protected]
          ruby-version: 2.6.x
      - uses: actions/[email protected]
          path: vendor/bundle
          key: $-gem-${ { hashFiles('**/Gemfile.lock') }}
          restore-keys: |
      - name: Set up Node
        uses: actions/[email protected]
          node-version: 10.13.0
      - name: Get yarn cache
        id: yarn-cache
        run: echo "::set-output name=dir::$(yarn cache dir)"
      - uses: actions/[email protected]
          path: $
          key: $-yarn-${ { hashFiles('**/yarn.lock') }}
          restore-keys: |
      - name: Install dependencies
        run: |
          sudo apt update
          sudo apt -yqq install libpq-dev
          gem install bundler
          bundle config path vendor/bundle
          bundle install --jobs 4 --retry 3
          yarn install


https://docs.gitlab.com/ce/ci/yaml/README.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GCYLqbxm70A https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-set-up-continuous-integration-pipelines-with-gitlab-ci-on-ubuntu-16-04 https://www.digitalocean.com/community/tutorials/how-to-install-and-configure-gitlab-on-ubuntu-16-04


cd /tmp
curl -LO https://packages.gitlab.com/install/repositories/gitlab/gitlab-ee/script.deb.sh
less script.deb.sh
sudo apt-get install gitlab-ee
sudo apt-get install --reinstall gitlab-ee
# sudo EXTERNAL_URL="https://gitlab.example.com" apt-get install gitlab-ee

Removing (uninstalling)

sudo gitlab-ctl uninstall
sudo gitlab-ctl cleanse
sudo gitlab-ctl remove-accounts
sudo dpkg -P gitlab-ce
sudo rm -rf /opt/gitlab /var/opt/gitlab /etc/gitlab /var/log/gitlab


sudo vi /etc/gitlab/gitlab.rb
# uncomment two lines
sudo apt-get install gitlab-ee
sudo apt-get install gitlab-ee
sudo apt-get install gitlab-ee

sudo gitlab-ctl reconfigure

See log

sudo gitlab-ctl tail
sudo gitlab-ctl tail unicorn/

For error

E, [2019-10-30T11:21:11.986549 #2433] ERROR -- : retrying in 0.5 seconds (0 tries left)
E, [2019-10-30T11:21:12.487244 #2433] ERROR -- : adding listener failed addr= (in use)

==> /var/log/gitlab/unicorn/unicorn_stdout.log <==
bundler: failed to load command: unicorn (/opt/gitlab/embedded/bin/unicorn)

==> /var/log/gitlab/unicorn/unicorn_stderr.log <==
Errno::EADDRINUSE: Address already in use - bind(2) for
  /opt/gitlab/embedded/lib/ruby/gems/2.6.0/gems/unicorn-5.4.1/lib/unicorn/socket_helper.rb:164:in `bind'

You should kill services that runs on 8080

sudo netstat -tupln | grep 8080

Default admin username is root

Install runner https://docs.gitlab.com/runner/install/

curl -L https://packages.gitlab.com/install/repositories/runner/gitlab-runner/script.deb.sh | sudo bash
sudo apt-get install gitlab-runner

Find token for the project asd in http://localhost/root/asd/-/settings/ci_cd#js-runners-settings and register runner

sudo gitlab-runner register # create new runner
sudo gitlab-runner register --help
sudo gitlab-runner list

TODO shell executor https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sACdT3Rv89E You can use Kubernetes clusters https://gitlab.com/help/user/project/clusters/index

To run a job localy you can use https://docs.gitlab.com/runner/commands/README.html#gitlab-runner-exec It reads local .gitlab-ci.yml and clone local git repository. Two arguments to exec: executor and job_name. It does not look for stages since it run only target job (it can see variables and before_script)

gitlab-runner exec docker job_name

Btw to run docker with tty session you can use

docker run -a stdin -a stdout -i -t ruby:2.4.5 /bin/bash

Example yaml file for Ruby is on https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/ci/examples/test-and-deploy-ruby-application-to-heroku.html Yaml https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/ci/yaml/ You can validate on https://gitlab.com/duleorlovic/rails_6/-/ci/lint

  • job1: toplevel elements which contains script clause. Jobs are picked up by runners and independently performed in parallel.
      stage: test
        - echo $CI_JOB_STAGE # test
        DATABASE_URL: "postgresql://postgres:[email protected]:5432/$POSTGRES_DB"
      # https://gitlab.com/help/ci/environments#configuring-manual-deployments
      when: manual
      stage: deploy
      environment: # just a tag so you can group deployments
        name: production
        url: https://rails-6.herokuapp.com
  • image is container with preinstalled tools and env variables like $RUBY_VERSION, examples are: image: ruby:2.5.3
  • services pull another images which is accessible with hostname as image, name like postgres, it sets env variable like $POSTGRES_DB. You can configure it when you set global variables: variables: { PSOTGRES_DB: my, POSTGRES_USER: duke, POSTGRES_PASSWORD: "" } https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/ci/services/ https://docs.gitlab.com/ee/ci/services/postgres.html https://gitlab.com/help/ci/docker/using_docker_images.md#passing-environment-variables-to-services
  • stages you can define order of stages, default stages: [build test deploy] (it is used instead of types)
  • before_script before every job
  • after_script
  • variables those vars are hardcoded and for all jobs. For keys you can use project settings ci/cd variables. Here are predefined vars like $CI_COMMIT_SHORT_SHA https://gitlab.com/help/ci/variables/predefined_variables.md to see all available vars you can use script: [export] (or env). You can use in most places but not all https://gitlab.com/help/ci/variables/where_variables_can_be_used.md
  • cache used to define cached folders
        - node_modules/
        - vendor/bundle

Environment and deployments https://gitlab.com/help/ci/environments for specific jobs (like tags). use GIT_STRATEGY: none when you do not need to chechout the code

Error when chrome is not found

              Failed to find Chrome binary.

You can install https://discuss.circleci.com/t/installing-chrome-inside-of-your-docker-container/9067 https://gist.github.com/nicobytes/e92b9b4fb7070a925662a48dd038cf67 https://stackoverflow.com/questions/56894827/gitlab-ci-config-for-rails-system-tests-with-selenium-and-headless-chrome https://medium.com/weareevermore/set-up-gitlab-ci-for-rails-applications-cf0117128bce

  sudo apt --fix-broken install

  wget -q -O - https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | apt-key add -
  set -x && apt-get update && apt-get install -y xvfb google-chrome-stable

  wget -q -O /usr/bin/xvfb-chrome https://bitbucket.org/atlassian/docker-node-chrome-firefox/raw/ff180e2f16ea8639d4ca4a3abb0017ee23c2836c/scripts/xvfb-chrome
  ln -sf /usr/bin/xvfb-chrome /usr/bin/google-chrome
  chmod 755 /usr/bin/google-chrome

Errors when chrome can not be run

Selenium::WebDriver::Error::UnknownError: unknown error: Chrome failed to start: exited abnormally
  (unknown error: DevToolsActivePort file doesn't exist)

you need to use options --headless --no-sandbox --disable-gpu or in rails just switch to :headless_chrome

# test/application_system_test_case.rb
require 'test_helper'
Capybara.register_driver :selenium_chrome_headless_docker_friendly do |app|
  browser_options = ::Selenium::WebDriver::Chrome::Options.new
  browser_options.args << '--headless'
  browser_options.args << '--disable-gpu'
  # Sandbox cannot be used inside unprivileged Docker container
  browser_options.args << '--no-sandbox'
  Capybara::Selenium::Driver.new(app, browser: :chrome, options: browser_options)

Capybara.javascript_driver = :selenium_chrome_headless_docker_friendly
class ApplicationSystemTestCase < ActionDispatch::SystemTestCase
  driven_by :selenium, screen_size: [1400, 1400]
  setup do
    Capybara.current_driver = Capybara.javascript_driver # :selenium by default

Example https://medium.com/weareevermore/set-up-gitlab-ci-for-rails-applications-cf0117128bce

# .gitlab-ci.yml

# https://hub.docker.com/r/library/ruby/tags/
image: ruby:2.6.3

# Check out: http://docs.gitlab.com/ce/ci/docker/using_docker_images.html#what-is-a-service
  - postgres:latest

  BUNDLE_PATH: vendor/bundle
  POSTGRES_DB: database_name
  RAILS_ENV: test

    - vendor
    - node_modules

  - ruby -v  # Print out ruby version for debugging
  - which ruby

  - apt-get update -q && apt-get install nodejs -yqq
  - node -v

   # Install yarn
  - wget -q -O - https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/pubkey.gpg | apt-key add -
  - echo "deb https://dl.yarnpkg.com/debian/ stable main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/yarn.list
  - apt-get update -yq
  - apt-get install -y yarn

  - gem install bundler --no-document
  - bundle install -j $(nproc) --path vendor
  - yarn install

    DATABASE_URL: "postgresql://postgres:[email protected]:5432/$POSTGRES_DB"
    - bundle exec rails assets:precompile
    - bundle exec rails db:migrate
    - bundle exec rubocop
    - bundle exec rails test

# https://gitlab.com/help/ci/environments#complete-example
  stage: deploy
    - echo "Deploy a review app"
    name: review/$CI_COMMIT_REF_NAME
    url: https://$CI_ENVIRONMENT_SLUG.example.com
    - branches
    - master

  stage: deploy
    name: staging
    url: https://rails-6-staging.herokuapp.com
    - gem install dpl
    - dpl --provider=heroku --app=$HEROKU_STAGING_APP_NAME --api-key=$HEROKU_API_KEY
    - master

  stage: deploy
    name: production
    url: https://rails-6.herokuapp.com
    - gem install dpl
    - dpl --provider=heroku --app=$HEROKU_APP_NAME --api-key=$HEROKU_API_KEY
    - master
  when: manual

Error: Admin::BotsTest#test_creating_a_Bot: Selenium::WebDriver::Error::UnknownError: unknown error: Chrome failed to start: exited abnormally (unknown error: DevToolsActivePort file doesn’t exist) (The process started from chrome location /usr/bin/google-chrome is no longer running, so ChromeDriver is assuming that Chrome has crashed.) test/system/admin/bots_test.rb:19:in `block in '