Http client Set uri

uri = URI('')

# add some params to uri
params = { :limit => 10, :page => 3 }
uri.query = URI.encode_www_form(params)

Simple one liner Net::HTTP.get

# you can get body (without status)
response_body = Net::HTTP.get uri
# but I prefer to fetch also the status
response = Net::HTTP.get_response uri
response.body # => <html>...

Simple one liner Net::HTTP.post_form

response = Net::HTTP.post_form(uri, 'q' => ['ruby', 'perl'], 'max' => '50')

Longer format is with or HTTP.start block syntax (better since you do not need to call http.start and it automatically close connection). Longer means than you create separate request object and use with http connection to make request

http =, uri.port)
request = '/'
response = http.request request

For https you need to enable ssl. If uri is https but you do not use ssl than you will get following error EOFError: end of file reached

# if you are using https
http.use_ssl = true
# or the best is to use
http.use_ssl = (uri.scheme == "https")
# you can also disable verify ssl with
http.verify_mode = OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_NONE

# or in block mode

res = Net::HTTP.start(, use_ssl: true, verify_mode: OpenSSL::SSL::VERIFY_NONE) {|http| http.request(req) }

You can define timeouts

http.open_timeout = 1
# when response takes to much time
http.read_timeout = 3
# when you POST a lot of data
http.write_timeout = 10

On request object you can set headers

header = {
  'Content-Type': 'application/json',
  'Authorization': "Bearer #{key}",
request =, header)
# or
request['Content-Type'] = 'text/json'
# or
http =, uri.port
http.use_ssl = true
res = uri.path, content.to_json, 'Content-type' => 'application/json', 'Accept' => 'text/json, application/json'

On response you can read headers

response.each_key {|k| res[k]}
{"server"=>["nginx/1.6.2"], "date"=>["Wed, 17 Oct 2018 22:22:51 GMT"], "content-type"=>["text/html"], "content-length"=>["184"], "connection"=>["close"], "location"=>[""]}

Set Form data

request.set_form_data(user: { name: 'Duke' })
# or
request.body = { user: { name: 'Duke' } }.to_json
# or plain text when request['Content-Type'] =
# 'application/x-www-form-urlencoded' in Postman there is no json curly braces
# this is not the same as to_json
request.body = 'grant_type=client_credentials'

Basic authentication header

request.basic_auth username, password
# or
request['Authorization'] = "Basic #{Base64.strict_encode64("#{consumer_key}:#{consumer_secret}")}"


Handle redirection

require 'net/http'
require 'uri'

def fetch(uri_str, limit = 10)
  # You should choose better exception.
  raise ArgumentError, 'HTTP redirect too deep' if limit == 0

  uri = URI.parse(uri_str)
  request =, { 'User-Agent' => 'Mozilla/5.0 (etc...)' })
  response = Net::HTTP.start(, uri.port) { |http| http.request(request) }
  case response
  when Net::HTTPSuccess     then response
  when Net::HTTPRedirection then fetch(response['location'], limit - 1)

print fetch('')


This gem is a little bit simpler than plain Net::HTTP (it is wrapper around net/http). It does not support multipart requests (needed for uploading a file)

require "HTTParty"

html = HTTParty.get("")
# => "<!DOCTYPE html>\n" + "<html class=\"client-nojs\" lang=\"en\" dir=\"ltr\">\n" + "<head>\n" + "<meta charset=\"UTF-8\"/>\n" + "<title>Douglas Adams - Wikipedia</title>\n" + ...

Open URI

In standard ruby library

require 'open-uri'

html = open("")


require 'rest-client' '/profile', file:'photo.jpg', 'rb')


Faraday allows you to choose any implemetnation (net/http, typhoeus)

require 'faraday'
conn = do |f|
  f.request :multipart
  f.request :url_encoded
  f.adapter :net_http
file_io ='photo.jpg', 'image/jpeg')'', file: file_io)

Debug requests

Ruby one liner http server

ruby -rsocket -e "trap('SIGINT') { exit }; Socket.tcp_server_loop(8080) { |s,_| puts s.readpartial(1024); puts; s.puts 'HTTP/1.1 200'; s.close }"

And open http://localhost:8080/ to see all headers and body

GET / HTTP/1.1
Host: localhost:8080
Connection: keep-alive
Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/69.0.3497.32 Safari/537.36
Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,image/apng,*/*;q=0.8
Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate, br
Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.9,sr;q=0.8,hr;q=0.7,bs;q=0.6,da;q=0.5,pt;q=0.4,bg;q=0.3
Cookie: _session_id=...

Outgoing http logs


For parsing html you can look at post for scraping capybara selenium.