Localisation i18n translations

Tips https://devhints.io/rails-i18n Translate models using activerecord https://guides.rubyonrails.org/i18n.html#translations-for-active-record-models so you can use

User.model_name.human
# pluralize
User.model_name.human(count: 2)
# attribute
User.human_attribute_name(:email)

To translate active record messages for specific attributes, you can overwrite messages for specific model and attributes (default ActiveRecord messages taken) https://github.com/rails/rails/blob/master/activerecord/lib/active_record/locale/en.yml#L23 https://apidock.com/rails/v4.2.7/ActiveModel/Errors/generate_message

Also you can change format errors.format: Polje "%{attribute}" %{message} https://github.com/rails/rails/blob/master/activemodel/lib/active_model/locale/en.yml#L4

And you can change attribute name activerecord.attributes.user.email: имејл To translate also plurals you can use User.model_name.human(count: 2). For attributes you can use User.human_attribute_name("email") link For ApplicationRecord translate activerecord. For form objects include ActiveModel::Model you should translate activemodel. There you can use t('successfully') instead I18n.t('successfully') if you include AbstractController::Translation

# config/locales/activerecord_activemodels.en.yml
en:
  activerecord:
    models:
      user:
        zero: No dudes
        one: Dude
        other: Dudes
  activemodel:
    attributes:
      landing_signup:
        current_city: Који је твој град ?
    errors:
      messages:
        group_not_exists_for_age: Не постоји група (%{age}год) на овој локацији
      models:
        landing_signup:
          attributes:
            current_city:
              blank: Не може бити празно ?
    models:
      user:
        one: корисник
        other: корисници
        accusative: корисника
        some_customer_message: Моја порука

Separate translations into different files (for example activerecord_activemodels.sr.yml) include them with:

# config/application.rb
config.i18n.load_path += Dir[Rails.root.join('config', 'locales', '**', '*.{rb,yml}')]

# Whitelist locales available for the application
I18n.available_locales = [:en, :pt]

# Set default locale to something other than :en
I18n.default_locale = :pt

To raise error when translation is missing .translation_missing class

# config/application.rb
config.action_view.raise_on_missing_translations = true

This way you can change default_locale and run system tests and you will get exception if some locale is missing.

No need to write quotes in yml unless you have:

  • colon : , than simply escape it’s meaning and use quotes name: "name: Ime"
  • start with %{} or , or .
  • have answer: Yes or answer: No, is somehow casts to true or false
  • have double quotes inside processing: <i class="fa fa-spinner fa-spin datatable-spinner"></i>Обрада.... Than you need to switch to single quotes. Note that it does not help to wrap double quotes with single quote, this won’t work: processing: '<i class="c"></i>' since you have double quote inside.

When debugging SyntaxError: [stdin]:60:33: unexpected identifier you should run rake tmp:clear so all yml end .erb files are compiled again.

If you want to reuse same translation you can use alias, but only inside same file, so in case of form object, you can add to activerecord_models.yml

sr:
  activerecord:
    attributes:
      subscriber: &subscriber_attributes
        name: Назив
      project: &project_attributes
        name: Назив
  activemodel:
    attributes:
      project_task_notification:
        <<: *project_attributes
        <<: *subscriber_attributes
        project_name: Назив

For custom errors can be different for each attribute or same. Can also accept param, for example

    errors.add :from_group_age, :group_not_exists_for_age, age: age

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/6166064/i18n-pluralization For serbian you can provide pluralization

# config/locales/plurals.rb
# https://github.com/svenfuchs/i18n/blob/master/test/test_data/locales/plurals.rb
serbian = {
  i18n: {
    plural: {
      keys: %i[one few many other],
      rule: lambda { |n|
        if n % 10 == 1 && n % 100 != 11
          :one
        elsif [2, 3, 4].include?(n % 10) && ![12, 13, 14].include?(n % 100)
          :few
        # elsif (n % 10).zero? || [5, 6, 7, 8, 9].include?(n % 10) || [11, 12, 13, 14].include?(n % 100)
        #   :many
        # there are no other integers, use :many if you need to differentiate
        # with floats
        else
          :other
        end
      }
    }
  }
}
{
  sr: serbian,
  'sr-latin': serbian,
}
# config/initializers/pluralization.rb
require 'i18n/backend/pluralization'
I18n::Backend::Simple.send(:include, I18n::Backend::Pluralization)

If you send count parameter t('sent_messages', count: 2) it will try to pick specific item based on number

# config/locales/sr.yml
sr:
  sent_messages:
    # 1, 21, 31 ...
    one: %{count} порука је послата
    # 2, 3, 4, 22, 23, 24, 32, 33, 34 ...
    few: %{count} поруке су послате
    # all other integers: 5, 6, ... 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 ... 20, 25, ...
    many: %{count} порука је послато

Note that you have to provide few translation for all words, since it could happend that count is 2 and translation is missing.

I18n.t 'sent_messages', count: 15
# or if you want to translate model
"#{chat.moves.size} #{Move.model_name.human count: chat.moves.size}"

You can translate to any language with

I18n.t 'sent_messages', locale: :sr

Example for Serbian localizations translations:

# config/locales/sr.yml
sr:
  # https://github.com/rails/rails/blob/master/activemodel/lib/active_model/locale/en.yml#L8
  errors:
    format: Поље "%{attribute}" %{message}
    messages:
      blank: не сме бити празно
      invalid: није исправно
  neo4j:
    errors:
      messages:
        required: мора постојати
        taken: је већ заузет
    models:
      user: корисник
      location:
        one: локација
        other: локације
    attributes:
      user:
        email: Имејл
        password: Лозинка
        password_confirmation: Потврда лозинке
        remember_me: Запамти ме

When you use .capitalize, .titleize or .upcase than you need first to call .mb_chars. For example

'ž'.upcase
=> "ž"

'ž'.mb_chars.upcase.to_s
 => "Ž"

Some common words translations can be found https://github.com/svenfuchs/rails-i18n/blob/master/rails/locale/en.yml

To translate with accusative you need to joins strings or use param in translation

module TranslateHelper
  # there are two ways of calling this helper:
  # t_crud 'are_you_sure_to_remove_item', item: @move
  # t_crud 'edit', User
  def t_crud(action, model_class)
    if model_class.class == Hash
      t(action, item: t("neo4j.models.#{model_class[:item].name.downcase}.accusative"))
    else
      "#{t(action)} #{t("neo4j.models.#{model_class.name.downcase}.accusative")}"
    end
  end
end

Translate latin to cyrilic with https://github.com/dalibor/cyrillizer You need to set language in config

# Gemfile
# translate cyrillic
gem 'cyrillizer'
# config/initializers/cyrillizer.rb
Cyrillizer.language = :serbian

In console

'my string'.to_cyr
 => "мy стринг"

Note that some chars looks the same but are not when rendered on html page

 # for example first line is not correct link a href
 <a href='%{confirmation_url}'>Поново пошаљи упутство за потврду</а>"
 <a href='%{confirmation_url}'>Поново пошаљи упутство за потврду</a>"

Locale

When changing locale I18n.locale = :sr in some methods, note that this is global variable in thread, so when you have 5 puma threads than on GET requests (simply refresh couple of times) you will get different locales. Here is my Rails controbution to guide about it https://github.com/rails/rails/pull/34911 One way is to use I18n.with_locale for example

class UserMailer < ActionMailer::Base
  default from: '[email protected]'

  def invitation(user)
    I18n.with_locale(user.locale) do
      mail subject: t('invitation'), to: user.email
    end
  end
end

For controller, you need to use around filters

  around_action :set_locale_from_session

  def set_locale_from_session
    if session[:locale].present?
      I18n.with_locale session[:locale].to_sym do
        yield
      end
    else
      yield
    end
  end

Translating user content

https://github.com/shioyama/mobility#quickstart

# Gemfile
# translation
gem 'mobility', '~> 0.8.6'

# this will generate config/initializers/mobility.rb
rails g mobility:install

# app/models/activity.rb
class Activity < ApplicationRecord
  extend Mobility
  translates :name
end

# in migration add default value
  create_table :activities, id: :uuid do |t|
    t.json :name, default: {}

For google translate look for two scripts, one for vim and one for whole yml. https://github.com/duleorlovic/config/tree/master/ruby

Enums

class User < ApplicationRecord
  enum status: [:active, :pending, :archived]
end

class ApplicationRecord < ActiveRecord::Base
  self.abstract_class = true

  def self.human_enum_name(enum_name, enum_value)
    I18n.t("activerecord.attributes.#{model_name.i18n_key}.#{enum_name.to_s.pluralize}.#{enum_value}")
  end
end


en:
  activerecord:
    attributes:
      user:
        statuses:
          active: "Active"
          pending: "Pending"
          archived: "Archived"

User.human_enum_name(:status, :pending)
User.human_enum_name(:status, user.status)

Tips

  • if you want to see which translation is used (if there is parent default value) you can try https://github.com/fphilipe/i18n-debug
  • for big content pages, you can translate using page.sr.html.erb instead of yml translations
  • fallbacks, if can not find the key in curreny localy, it can search in fallback locale. In this case you can translate only specific keys
    # config/application.rb
    config.i18n.fallbacks = { en_GB: [:en] }
    
    # config/locales/en_GB.yml
    en_GB:
      soccer: Footbal
    
    en:
      soccer: Soccer
      words: Words
    
    # logs from i18n-debug
    en_GB.show.soccer => 'Footbal'
    en_GB.show.words => nil
    en.show.words => 'Words'
    
  • To see Rails default datetime formats go to https://github.com/svenfuchs/rails-i18n/blob/master/rails/locale/en.yml to see current translation you can use
    I18n.translate 'date.formats.default`
    => "%Y-%m-%d"
    
  • to localise timestamps you can use I18n.l Time.now, format: :formal

    en:
      time:
        formats:
        default: '%H:%M'
        formal: The time is %H:%M
    
    
  • helper.number_with_precision, distance_of_time_in_words_to_now, number_to_currency, number_to_human, number_to_human_size are some helpers that uses translations